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Glaucoma description


Glaucoma is the 2nd leading cause of blindness globally. About 67 million people ( 10% of whom are blind) currently suffer from Glaucoma; this number will grow to 80 million in 2020 in OECD countries alone.


The term glaucoma (or optic neuropathy) refers to all ocular diseases in which elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) or other pressure instability factors affect the optical nerve. These factors include cardiovascular diseases.


The diagnosis of glaucoma rests on 4 main clinical and test findings (not all 4 are needed for diagnosis) and thus rests vastly on the ophthalmologist clinical expertise and experience


• Elevated Intraocular pressure measurement using a tonometer

• Increased optic nervehead cup to disc ratio (>0,40) on fundus examination

• Decreased visual field on clinical Goldmann or other perimetry

• Anterior Angle anomaly visible on clinical examination or Optical Coherence Tomography of the anterior angle


On its own, the term glaucoma is vague. There are actually several types of glaucoma. The most common type is chronic open angle glaucoma. There is also normal tension glaucoma, primary congenital glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma, angle closure glaucoma, phakomorphic glaucoma etc..All of which have different genetic and

environmental causes.













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